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What are the challenges of AI in Health?

The development of AI applications in health involves many issues and raises many challenges.

The first main concern is obviously medical. If the aim of AI applications in Health is to improve patient care by acting on medical and organisational level, they must provide guarantees in terms of efficiency and safety for users, whether they are patients or health professionals. Thus, the ethical aspect is at the heart of AI in Health in order to guarantee the safety of people, the protection of medical data, the respect of the will, self-determination, privacy and confidentiality. The European Commission has set up a group of experts to define guidelines for developing ethical AI. The development of AI application projects in Health in France complies with the legislation and rules in force to ensure ethics.

AI research, and in particular in Health, requires significant financial investments, and there is a major economic concern at stake, with potential benefits on the scale of individual and collective health. The scientific and mecial successes expected from AI can subsequently lead to economic successes through innovation and the development of cutting-edge technologies enabling French companies to position themselves as pioneers in emerging markets at national and international level.

More broadly, AI is also associated with a political and strategic issue on a global level. Similarly to the conquest of space a few decades ago, AI is a rapidly expanding field with strong dynamism and competitiveness of the world’s major powers. While France holds its place among the top 20 countries in the world in terms of innovation, the recognition of the ethical and human considerations and promoting a responsible AI remain a top priority.

Finally, the integration of AI-derived applications for health raises socio-cultural considerations, including how they will be perceived, integrated, and accepted by health professionals, patients, and society. Indeed, AI has given rise to many imaginations and misconceptions derived from science fiction, ranging from the miracle scenario, in which AI cures any disease, to the catastrophic scenario in which humans are enslaved by machines. Realistically, and as physicians and AI researchers, we are convinced that AI can bring new and useful applications to clinical practice and medical research, providing innovative and efficient tools for patients and health professionals, but never replacing the expertise and responsibilities of professionals, nor hindering the autonomy and freedom of patients.

Through the arterIA website, we wish to share with you the current state of knowledge on cardiovascular diseases, to follow and to present the innovations that could improve the medicine of tomorrow.